Lo Psedoxantoma elastico (PXE) è stato descritto per la prima volta nel 1881.

Da allora, nel corso degli anni, diversi Ricercatori in varie parti del mondo si sono interessati al PXE pubblicando i risultati delle loro ricerche su riviste internazionali.

Di seguito viene riportato, in ordine cronologico, un elenco dei principali lavori pubblicati sull’argomento con indicazione del¬†nome degli Autori, il titolo dello studio e la rivista sulla quale √® possibile trovare il lavoro per esteso (se liberamente accessibile online) o un breve riassunto.



























    • Aessopos A, Farmakis D, Karagiorga M, Rombos I, Loucopoulos D. ¬†Pseudoxanthoma elasticum lesions and cardiac complications as contributing factors for strokes in beta-thalassemia patients. Stroke. 1997;28:2421-4.
    • Cailleux N, Hachulla E, Perez-Cousin M, Labalette P, Lecomte-Houcke M. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: a rare cause of leg artery diseases in young adults. J Mal Vasc. 1997;22:51-5.¬†
    • Cheeseman EW Jr, Bidwell AE. Images in clinical medicine. Angioid streaks in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:828.
    • Cho SH, Cho BK, Kim CW. Milia en plaque associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. J Cutan Pathol. 1997;24:61-3.
    • Germain DP, Pope FM. Pathological case of the month. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997;151:97-8.¬†
    • Gurwood AS, Mastrangelo DL. Understanding angioid streaks. J Am Optom Assoc. 1997;68:309-24. Erratum in: J Am Optom Assoc 1997;68:406.
    • Jacobi H, Schreiber G. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Skin changes as a marker of systemic illness. Hautarzt. 1997;48:191-4.
    • K√©vorkian JP, Masquet C, Kural-M√©nasch√© S, Le Dref O, Beaufils P. New report of severe coronary artery disease in an eighteen-year-old girl with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Case report and review of the literature. Angiology. 1997;48:735-41.
    • Lobo FD, Pai RR, Pinto J, Pai GS. Peri-umbilical perforating pseudoxanthoma elasticum. J Indian Med Assoc. 1997;95:436.¬†
    • Mancini AJ. Waardenburg syndrome type II in a Taiwanese woman with a family history of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Int J Dermatol. 1997;36:933-5.
    • Rodr√≠guez-Cuartero A, Garc√≠a-Vera E. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: a study of urinary glycosaminoglycan levels in two cases. Br J Dermatol. 1997;137:473-4.
    • Struk B, Neldner KH, Rao VS, St Jean P, Lindpaintner K. Mapping of both autosomal recessive and dominant variants of pseudoxanthoma elasticum to chromosome 16p13.1. Hum Mol Genet. 1997;6:1823-8.
    • Uenishi T, Uchiyama M, Sugiura H, Danno K. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum with generalized cutaneous laxity. Arch Dermatol. 1997;133:664-6.¬†
    • van Soest S, Swart J, Tijmes N, Sandkuijl LA, Rommers J, Bergen AA. ¬†A locus for autosomal recessive pseudoxanthoma elasticum, with penetrance of vascular symptoms in carriers, maps to chromosome 16p13.1. Genome Res. 1997;7:830-4.
    • Vargas-D√≠ez E, Pe√Īas PF, Fraga J, Arag√ľes M, Garc√≠a-D√≠ez A. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like papillary dermal elastolysis. A report of two cases and review of the literature. Acta Derm Venereol. 1997;77:43-5.¬†



  • Berteretche MV, Hornebeck W, Pellat B, Bardon CB, Godeau G. ¬†Histomorphometric parameters and susceptibility to neutrophil elastase degradation of skin elastic fibres from healthy individuals and patients with Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos type IV, and pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Br J Dermatol. 1995;133:836-41.
  • Godfrey M, Cisler J, Geerts ML, Christiano A, Uitto J, De Bie S, DePaepe A. Fibrillin¬† imunofluorescence in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;32:589-94.
  • Hiragi T, Yoshikawa J, Okura H, Honda Y, Akasaka T. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum associated with unstable angina and Leriche syndrome: a case report. J Cardiol. 1995;26:43-9.¬†
  • Jones AR, Florin TH. Deterioration of pseudoxanthoma elasticum in a patient with active Crohn’s disease. Aust N Z J Med. 1995;25:739.¬†
  • Lebwohl M, Longas MO, Konstadt J, Koreen R, Grabowski GA, Phelps R, Lemlich G, Schwartz E. ¬†Hyaluronic acid and dermatan sulfate in non-lesional pseudoxanthoma elasticum skin. Clin Chim Acta. 1995;238:101-7.
  • Lommi J, H√§rk√∂nen M. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum–a rare hereditary connective tissue disease. Duodecim. 1995;111:253-6.¬†
  • Rebora A, Parodi A, Rongioletti F. Mid-dermal elastolysis and pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like papillary dermal elastolysis. Br J Dermatol. 1995;132:487.¬†
  • Rongioletti F, Rebora A. Fibroelastolytic patterns of intrinsic skin aging: pseudoxanthoma-elasticum-like¬† papillary dermal elastolysis and white fibrous papulosis of the neck. Dermatology. 1995;191:19-24.



  • Baccarani Contri M, Tiozzo R, Croce MA, Andreoli T, De Paepe A. Cell-matrix interactions in cultured dermal fibroblasts from patients with an inherited connective-tissue disorder. Cytotechnology. 1993;11 Suppl 1:S112-4.
  • Coupe RL. ¬†Pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like papillary dermal elastolysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28(2 Pt 1):282-3.
  • Erden A, Dumanli H, Yardimci C, Erden I, Ayta√ß S. Ultrasound and color flow Doppler manifestations of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. J Clin Ultrasound. 1993 Jul-Aug;21(6):396-8. No abstract available.
  • Hacker SM, Ramos-Caro FA, Beers BB, Flowers FP. ¬†Juvenile pseudoxanthoma elasticum: recognition and management. Pediatr Dermatol. 1993;10:19-25.
  • Kim DD, Pulido JS, Wipplinger WA. Indocyanine green angiographic findings in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993;116:767-9.¬†
  • Lebwohl M, Halperin J, Phelps RG. Brief report: occult pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with premature cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1237-9.
  • Lebwohl M, Schwartz E, Lemlich G, Lovelace O, Shaikh-Bahai F, Fleischmajer R. Abnormalities of connective tissue components in lesional and non-lesional tissue of patients with pseudoxanthoma¬† elasticum. Arch Dermatol Res. 1993;285(3):121-6.
  • Lebwohl M. Images in clinical medicine. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1240.
  • Mansat-Krzyzanowska E, Sagot P, Le Neel N, Stalder JF. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and pregnancy. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1993;120:391-4.
  • Menage P, Machet MC, Machet L, Ruchoux MM, de Toffol B, Autret A. Peripheral neuropathy, calcifications of central grey nuclei and pseudoxanthoma¬† elasticum. Ann Med Interne (Paris). 1993;144:290-1.
  • Perrot LJ, Mrak RE. Cardiac involvement in a child with unsuspected pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Pediatr Pathol. 1993;13:273-9.
  • Rosenzweig BP, Guarneri E, Kronzon I. Echocardiographic manifestations in a patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:487-90.
  • Satoh M, Akizuki M, Hama N, Akama H, Matsushita Y, Kawai S, Fukuda T, Homma M. ¬†Rheumatoid arthritis in a patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Intern Med. 1993;32:508-9.
  • Takaro TK, Coodley GO. ¬†Pentoxifylline for ischemic pain in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. West J Med. 1993;159:689-90.¬†
  • Wako K, Nakayama S, Taniguchi A, Naito Y, Kuzuhara S. A case of pseudoxanthoma elasticum associated with asymptomatic multiple cerebral infarction, hypothyroidism, glucose tolerance abnormality and multiple congenital anomalies. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1993;33:759-64.





  • Aesopos A, Stamatelos G, Savvides P, Rombos I, Tassiopoulos T, Kaklamanis P. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and angioid streaks in two cases of beta-thalassaemia.Clin Rheumatol. 1989;8:522-7.
  • Bordat B, Auch-Roy-Mainguy S, Boudet C, Navarre L. Gronblad-Strandberg syndrome: association of angioid streaks and an elastic pseudoxanthoma (apropos of a case in a 20-year-old young woman). Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr. 1989;89:463-7.
  • Chalk JB, Patterson MC, Pender MP. An intracranial arteriovenous malformation and palatal myoclonus related to pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Aust N Z J Med. 1989;19:141-3.
  • Davis AL, Wojnarowska FT, Frith P. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum presenting with blindness.J R Soc Med. 1989;82:627-8.
  • Guivarch P, Florent C, Desaint B, Tubiana JM, Merland JJ, Levy VG. Upper digestive hemorrhage in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Treatment by arterial embolization. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1989;13:432-4.
  • Hamada M, Fukuda K, Handa S, Abe S, Hasegawa N, Ogawa S, Nakamura Y. A case of pseudoxanthoma elasticum with coronary invasion manifested with unstable angina. Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 1989;78:54-8.
  • Hemmati M, Rosengarten J, Hier DB. MR imaging in pseudoxanthoma elasticum.AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989;10(5 Suppl):S60.
  • McCreedy CA, Zimmerman TJ, Webster SF. Management of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Surgery. 1989;105:170-4.
  • Rongioletti F, Bertamino R, Rebora A. Generalized pseudoxanthoma elasticum with deficiency of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21:1150-2.
  • Sahn EE, Maize JC, Garen PD, Mullins SC, Silver RM. D-penicillamine-induced elastosis perforans serpiginosa in a child with juvenile¬† rheumatoid arthritis. Report of a case and review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;20:979-88.
  • Sharif KW, Doig WM, Kinsella FP. Visual impairment in a case of juvenile Paget’s disease with pseudoxanthoma elasticum: an eleven year follow up.J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1989;26:299-302.
  • Walker ER, Frederickson RG, Mayes MD. The mineralization of elastic fibers and alterations of extracellular matrix in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and X-ray analysis. Arch Dermatol. 1989;125:70-6‚Äč


  • Belli A, Cawthorne S. Visceral angiographic findings in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Br J Radiol. 1988;61:368-71.
  • Brown R, Raines MF. The blood-retinal barrier in angioid streaks. Eye. 1988;2:547-51.
  • Burge S, Ryan T. Penicillamine-induced pseudo-pseudoxanthoma elasticum in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1988;13:255-8.
  • Challenor VF, Conway N, Monro JL. The surgical treatment of restrictive cardiomyopathy in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Br Heart J. 1988;59:266-9.
  • Dahlb√§ck K, L√∂fberg H, Dahlb√§ck B. Immunohistochemical studies on vitronectin in elastic tissue disorders, cutaneous amyloidosis, lichen ruber planus and porphyria.Acta Derm Venereol. 1988;68:107-15.
  • Fang ML, Astarita RW, Steinman HK. Cardiac calcifications and yellow papules in a young man. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). Arch Dermatol. 1988;124:1560-1, 1563-4.
  • Jacyk WK, Lodder JV, Dreyer L. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum in South African black patients. A report on 7 cases. S Afr Med J. 1988;74:184-6.¬†
  • Johnson BW, Oshinskie L. Diagnosis and management of angioid streaks. J Am Optom Assoc. 1988;59:704-11.
  • Kanzaki T, Matsuno T, Kamimura K, Miyazawa S, Nishiyama S. Trace element analyses in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. J Dermatol. 1988;15:99-103.¬†
  • Kazakis AM, Parish WR. Periumbilical perforating pseudoxanthoma elasticum. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;19:384-8.
  • Kundrotas L, Novak J, Kremzier J, Meenaghan M, Hassett J. Gastric bleeding in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988;83:868-72.
  • McDonald HR, Schatz H, Aaberg TM. Reticular-like pigmentary patterns in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Ophthalmology. 1988;95:306-11.
  • Neldner KH. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Clin Dermatol. 1988;6:1-159.¬†
  • Neldner KH. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Int J Dermatol. 1988;27:98-100.¬†
  • Polishchuk SI. Darier’s pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Vestn Dermatol Venerol. 1988;8:61-3.
  • Schwartz E, Cruickshank FA, Lebwohl MG. Elastase-like protease and elastolytic activities expressed in cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from lesional skin of patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, actinic elastosis, and cutis laxa. Clin Chim Acta. 1988;176:219-24.
  • Tiozzo Costa R, Baccarani Contri M, Cingi MR, Pasquali-Ronchetti I, Salvini R, Rindi S, De Luca G.¬† Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE): ultrastructural and biochemical study on proteoglycan and proteoglycan-associated material produced by skin fibroblasts in vitro.Coll Relat Res. 1988 Jan;8(1):49-64.
  • Viljoen D. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (Gr√∂nblad-Strandberg syndrome). J Med Genet. 1988;25:488-90.


  • Franc√®s C, Emilie D, Wechsler B, Wechsler J, Boisnic S, Le Hoang P, Kieffer E, Godeau P. Diffuse disease of elastic tissue and hyperphosphoremia. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1987;114:359-67.¬†
  • Giuffr√® G. The pathogenesis of the fundus peau d’orange and salmon spots.Metab Pediatr Syst Ophthalmol. 1987;10:95-8.
  • Grand MG, Isserman MJ, Miller CW. Angioid streaks associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum in a 13-year-old patient. Ophthalmology. 1987;94:197-200.
  • Gresser U, Stautner-Br√ľckmann C, Zoller WG. Kidney involvement in pseudoxanthoma elasticum–sonography shows early calcinosis of the kidney parenchyma. Bildgebung. 1987-1989;56:179-80.¬†
  • Korn S, Seilnacht J, Huth C, Feller AM. Cardiovascular manifestations of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (Gr√∂nblad-Strandberg syndrome). Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1987;35:191-4.
  • Lebwohl M, Phelps RG, Yannuzzi L, Chang S, Schwartz I, Fuchs W. Diagnosis of pseudoxanthoma elasticum by scar biopsy in patients without characteristic skin lesions. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:347-50.
  • Lods F, Ortonne P, Dumas I. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and streaked multicolored fundus oculi. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr. 1987;87:495-7.
  • Maeda Y, Uchiyama S, Soma Y, Aikawa T, Kobayashi I, Maruyama S. A case of pseudoxanthoma elasticum showing various heteroptics due to infarction of right parieto-occipital lobe. No To Shinkei. 1987;39:251-6.
  • Mallette LE, Mechanick JI. Heritable syndrome of pseudoxanthoma elasticum with abnormal phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism. Am J Med. 1987;83:1157-62.
  • Matis WL, Kurban R, Skouge JW, Jerdan MS. Generalized eruption in a patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Arch Dermatol. 1987;123:1707-8, 1710-2.
  • Medrano L√≥pez M, Arderiu Freixa A, Ruiz Moreno JM. Importance of examination of the fundus oculi in the diagnosis of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Med Clin (Barc). 1987;89:845.
  • Mesnard B, Bonni√®re P, G√©rard A, Colombel JF, Cortot A, Paris JC.Digestive hemorrhage disclosing systemic elastorrhexia. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1987;11:526-7.¬†
  • Milot JA, No√ęl LP, Lemieux N, Richer CL. Ocular and cytogenetic findings in three new cases of trisomy 9p. Metab Pediatr Syst Ophthalmol. 1987;10:89-94.
  • Popescu MP. Presence of choroidal neovascular membranes in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Rev Chir Oncol Radiol O R L Oftalmol Stomatol Ser Oftalmol. 1987;31:219-20.¬†
  • Praderio L, Marianj F, Baldini V. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and rheumatoid arthritis. Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:206-7.¬†
  • Sane DC, Vidaillet HJ Jr, Burton CS 3rd. Pitfalls of chest pain. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Chest. 1987;91:134-5.¬†
  • Somasundaram V, Premalatha S, Rao NR, Abdul Razack EM, Zahra A. Periumbilical perforating pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Int J Dermatol. 1987;26:536-7.¬†
  • Viljoen DL, Beatty S, Beighton P. The obstetric and gynaecological implications of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1987;94:884-8.
  • Viljoen DL, Pope FM, Beighton P. Heterogeneity of pseudoxanthoma elasticum: delineation of a new form? Clin Genet. 1987;32:100-5.


  • Araki Y, Imai S, Saitoh A, Ito T, Shimizu K, Yamada H. A case of carotid rete mirabile associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum: a case report. No To Shinkei. 1986; 38:495-500.
  • Cassinelli A, Macedo NA, Carlevaro A, Nicola M. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Med Cutan Ibero Lat Am. 1986;14(5):311-8.
  • Garg SC, Singh N. Groenblad Strandberg syndrome. J Assoc Physicians India. 1986;34:671.
  • Grochowska K. 2 cases of pseudoxanthoma elasticum with hypofunction of T lymphocytes and granulocytes. Przegl Dermatol. 1986;73:486-90.
  • Heaton JP, Wilson JW. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and its urological implications.J Urol. 1986;135:776-7.
  • Light N, Meyrick Thomas RH, Stephens A, Kirby JD, Fryer PR, Avery NC. Collagen and elastin changes in D-penicillamine-induced pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like skin. Br J Dermatol. 1986;114:381-8.
  • Longas MO, Wisch P, Lebwohl MG, Fleischmajer R. Glycosaminoglycans of skin and urine in pseudoxanthoma elasticum: evidence for chondroitin 6-sulfate alteration. Clin Chim Acta. 1986;155:227-36
  • Pasquali-Ronchetti I, Baccarani Contri M, Pincelli C, Bertazzoni GM. Effect of selective enzymatic digestions on skin biopsies from pseudoxanthoma elasticum: an ultrastructural study. Arch Dermatol Res. 1986;278:386-92.
  • Puvaneswary M. Pulmonary radiographic changes in pseudoxanthoma elasticum.Australas Radiol. 1986;30:310-2.
  • Seb√∂k B, Zombai E, Kiss A. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Orv Hetil. 1986;127:77-80.
  • Tahara Y, Inaba S, Horikawa Y, Nishimura I, Honbo Y, Osamura Y, Kouya M,Uezuka Y, Sekiguchi M. A case of pseudoxanthoma elasticum associated with myocardial infarction which revealed the absence of significant narrowing of the coronary artery. Kokyu To Junkan. 1986;34:905-10.¬†‚Äč


  • Antignac C, Gubler MC, Garel L, Dechaux M, Lenoir G, Habib R, Broyer M. Diffuse arterial calcified elastopathy. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1985;78:1701-5.
  • Bentley-Phillips B. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like skin changes induced by penicillamine. J R Soc Med. 1985;78:787.¬†
  • Black AS, Kanat IO. A review of soft tissue calcifications.J Foot Surg. 1985;24:243-50.
  • Brophy MC, Dunagin WG. Intertriginous dermatoses. Common puzzling problems. Postgrad Med. 1985;78:105-12, 115-7.
  • Divanian RS.A case of familial pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Vestn Dermatol Venerol. 1985;10:62-3.¬†
  • Gubler MC, Antignac C, Broyer M, Garel L, Lenoir G, Niaudet P, Dechaux M,Habib R. Diffuse arterial calcified elastopathy–a new cause of renovascular hypertension in children. Int J Pediatr Nephrol. 1985;6:47-54.
  • Lippman SM, Abergel RP, Ginzton LE, Uitto J, Tanaka KR, Miyamoto EK, Laks MM. Mitral valve prolapse in sickle cell disease: manifestation of a generalized connective tissue disorder.Am J Hematol. 1985;19:1-12.
  • Meyrick Thomas RH, Kirby JD. Elastosis perforans serpiginosa and pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like skin change due to D-penicillamine.Clin Exp Dermatol. 1985;10:386-91.¬†
  • Nickoloff BJ, Noodleman FR, Abel EA. Perforating pseudoxanthoma elasticum associated with chronic renal failure and hemodialysis.Arch Dermatol. 1985;121:1321-2.
  • Pearson RW. Histopathologic and ultrastructural findings in certain genodermatoses. Clin Dermatol. 1985;3:143-74.
  • Pernot C. Aortic and valvular lesions in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Arch Fr Pediatr. 1985 Jan;42(1):63.
  • Stutz SB, Schnyder UW, Vogel A. Clinical aspects and genetics of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Hautarzt. 1985;36:265-8.
  • Tassignon MJ, Merckaert I, De Coninck A, Cornelis MT. Treatment of choroidal neovascular membranes in a case of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol. 1985;214:107-12.
  • Tsuchioka Y, Doi M, Fujii H, Sakura E, Hashimoto M, Sueda T, Yuasa A, Matsuura H, Kajiyama G, Kajihara H. A case of Gr√∂nblad-Strandberg syndrome with coronary artery disease. Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 1985;74:1739-44.
  • Vogel A, Schnyder UW, Stutz SB. Light and electron microscopy of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Hautarzt. 1985;36:269-73.¬†
  • Woo TY, Rasmussen JE. Disorders of transepidermal elimination. Part 2.Int J Dermatol. 1985;24:337-48.


  • Broekhuizen FF, Hamilton PR. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and intrauterine growth retardation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984;148:112-4.
  • Elejalde BR, de Elejalde MM, Samter T, Burgess J, Lombardi J, Gilbert EF. Manifestations of pseudoxanthoma elasticum during pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Med Genet. 1984;18:755-62.¬†
  • Fasshauer K, Reimers CD, Gnau HJ, Strempel I, Rossberg C. Neurological complications of Gr√∂nblad-Strandberg syndrome. J Neurol. 1984;231:250-2.
  • Fournier D. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum a little known syndrome. Clinical and genetic aspects of a case. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1984;73:183-91.
  • Golovchenko DIa, Lober ND, Bondareva GS, Fedorenko AE. Gr√∂nblad-Strandberg syndrome. Vestn Dermatol Venerol. 1984;5:52-3.
  • Hsu CT, Fan RL, Cheng TC. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding: an unusual cause–pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Taiwan Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi. 1984;83:499-506.
  • Irani C, Dagonet Y, Casasoprana A, Ribierre M. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum with aortic insufficiency and arterial hypertension in a 12-year-old boy. Arch Fr Pediatr. 1984;41:337-9.
  • Lao TT, Walters BN, de Swiet M. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and pregnancy. Two case reports. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1984;91:1049-50.
  • Meyrick Thomas RH, Light N, Stephens AD, Avery NC, Kirby JD. ¬†Pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like skin changes induced by penicillamine. J R Soc Med. 1984;77:794-8.
  • M√ľller-B√ľhl U, Diehm C, M√∂rl H, Gallasch G, Bersch A. Arterial circulatory disorders of the legs in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Gr√∂nblad-Strandberg syndrome. Internist (Berl). 1984;25:375-8.
  • M√ľller-B√ľhl U, Rosenau H, Diehm C, M√∂rl H. Incidence and clinical relevance of cardiovascular complications of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (Gr√∂nblad-Strandberg syndrome). Vasa. 1984;13:4-10.
  • Pierard GE. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Morphological and biomechanical study of dominant type 1 and recessive type 2 forms. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1984;111:111-6.
  • Renie WA, Pyeritz RE, Combs J, Fine SL. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: high calcium intake in early life correlates with severity. Am J Med Genet. 1984;19:235-44.
  • Schneider T, Apel HP, Kuhlwein A, Mensing H, Schaeg G. Groenblad-Strandberg syndrome. Z Hautkr. 1984;59:1290-2, 1297-300.
  • Tsuji T. Three-dimensional architecture of altered dermal elastic fibers in pseudoxanthoma elasticum: scanning electron microscopic studies. J Invest Dermatol. 1984;82:518-21.
  • Viljoen DL, Beighton P, Mabin T, Woods K, Saxe N, Bonafede P. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum in South Africa–genetic and clinical implications. S Afr Med J. 1984;66:813-6.
  • Yamamura T, Sano S. Ultrastructural and histochemical analysis of thready material in Pseudoxanthoma¬† elasticum. J Cutan Pathol. 1984;11:282-91.


  • Berde C, Willis DC, Sandberg EC. Pregnancy in women with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1983;38:339-44.
  • Bork K. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum in pregnancy: effects on mother and child. Hautarzt. 1983;34:77-80.
  • Cochran RJ, Wilkin JK. An unusual case of calcinosis cutis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;8:103-6.
  • Corsi FM, Falchi N, Galgani S, Panzera MA, Piazza G. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and painful ophthalmoplegia of the Tolosa-Hunt type. Riv Neurobiol. 1983;29:553-8.
  • Di Matteo J, Heulin A, Jaubert F, Delage F. Cardiovascular manifestations of systemic elastorrhexis (the Gr√∂nblad-Strandberg-Touraine syndrome). Ann Med Interne (Paris). 1983;134:470-4.
  • Erkkil√§ H, Raitta C, Niemi KM. Ocular findings in four siblings with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1983;61:589-99.
  • Gordon SG, Hinkle LL, Shaw E. Cysteine protease characteristics of the proteoglycanase activity from normal and pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) fibroblasts. J Lab Clin Med. 1983;102:400-10.
  • Kito K, Kobayashi N, Mori N, Kohno H. Ruptured aneurysm of the anterior spinal artery associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1983;58:126-8.
  • Niizuma K. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum–a fresh approach to morphogenesis using tannic acid fixation. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 1983;8:79-88.
  • Schiazza L, Nemelka O, Occella C, Persi A, Rampini E. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Minerva Pediatr. 1983;35:279-86.
  • Smallridge RC, Gemayel N. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and autoimmune thyroid disease. Arch Intern Med. 1983;143:1490.
  • Uitto J, Paul JL, Brockley K, Pearce RH, Clark JG. Elastic fibers in human skin: quantitation of elastic fibers by computerized digital image analyses and determination of elastin by radioimmunoassay of desmosine. Lab Invest. 1983;49:499-505.


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